Foreign trips

He visit to Vienna constituted a mixed success. The Austrian press alternately lampooned and fawned over the Persian ruler, using numerous orientalist tropes. However, the managed to persuade Austria to help efforts at administrative reform and forged good enough relations to secure Austria’s military aid several years later. At the same time, he did little to conscript Austrian know-how for Persia’s industrialisation and preferred to spend his time with old acquaintances and interesting personages.