Pop singer Sirvan Khosravi

Exceptions and limitations to copyright are special cases defined by law where the general principle that the prior authorization of the rightsholder is necessary to make use of a work does not apply. That is, in the public interest of maintaining a balance between the interests of rightsholders and those of content users, copyright-protected works may in some cases be used without the authorization of the rightsholder. Generally, exceptions and limitations to copyright are subject to a three-step test initially set out in the Berne Convention and repeated in a number of other international agreements.