Russia and the Caucasus 150 years ago

The Crimean War pitted the Russian Empire against the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain and France. Great Britain in particular was concerned about Russia’s expansion southward at the expense of the Ottoman Empire and considered Circassia a potential buffer state. The 1856 Peace of Paris, which ended the war, did not grant Circassia independence but it demilitarized the Black Sea, preventing Russia from maintaining a fleet there.